Titanium (Ti) (Titanium) - a chemical element with atomic number 22, atomic weight of 47.88, a light silver-white metal. Density 4.51 g/cm3, melting point. + = 1668 (-) 5 ° C, boiling point. = 3260 ° C. For commercial titanium VT1-00 and VT1-0 density of about 4.32 g/cm3. Titanium and titanium alloys combine lightness, strength, high corrosion resistance, low coefficient of thermal expansion, the ability to operate over a wide temperature range.
Titanium oxide TiO2 was first discovered in 1789 by William Gregor, which is the study of the magnetic ferrous oxide sand singled unknown metal, calling it menakenovoy. The first sample of titanium metal received in 1825 by J. Berzelius.
In the periodic table of elements Mendeleev titanium is in Group IV of the 4th period at number 22. In the most important and most stable compounds, it is tetravalent. In appearance similar to steel. Titanium is a transition element. This metal is melted at a relatively high temperature (1668 ± 4 ° C) and boils at 3300 ° C, latent heat of melting and evaporation of titanium almost two times higher than that of iron.
There are two known allotropic modification of titanium. Low-temperature alpha-modification to the existing 882,5 ° C and high beta-modification, stable from 882,5 ° C to the melting point.
Density and specific heat capacity of titanium occupies an intermediate position between the two major structural metals: aluminum and iron. It is also worth noting that its mechanical strength is about twice that of pure iron and is almost six times higher than aluminum. But titanium can actively absorb oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen, which drastically reduce the ductility of the metal. Since Ti forms carbon refractory carbides having a high hardness.
Titanium has a low thermal conductivity, which is 13 times lower than that of aluminum and is 4 times - iron. Coefficient of thermal expansion at room temperature is relatively small temperature increases, it increases.
The elastic moduli of titanium are small and exhibit a significant anisotropy. With povysheiiem temperature to 350 ° C modulus of elasticity decreases almost linearly. A small value of the elastic moduli of titanium - a significant lack of it, as in some cases, to obtain a sufficiently rigid structures necessary to use a large section of the product in comparison with those that follow from strength.
Titanium has a very high specific elektrosoprotivleiie, which, depending on the impurity content ranged from 42.10 to 80.10 -6 -8 ohm.cm. At temperatures lower than 0.45 K it becomes superconducting.
Titanium - paramagnetic metal. In the paramagnetic susceptibility of substances when heated is usually reduced. Titanium is an exception to this rule - it significantly increases the susceptibility to temperature.